Osman Ali Khan
NezamHaydarabad (cropped to image only).jpg
7th Nizam of Hyderabad
Reign29 August 1911 –
17 September 1948
Titular: 17 September 1948 – 24 February 1967[1]
Coronation18 September 1911[2]
PredecessorMahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI
SuccessorBarkat Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VIII (titular)
Prime minister
Born(1886-04-06)6 April 1886
Purani Haveli, Hyderabad, Hyderabad State, British Indian Empire
(now in Telangana, India)
Died24 February 1967 (age 80)
King Kothi Palace, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
(now in Telangana, India)[not verified in body]
Burial
Judi Mosque, (opposite King Kothi Palace), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
(now in Telangana, India)
SpouseDulhan Pasha Begum and others
Issue34[3][4][5][6][7][8] 18 sons and 16 daughters including Azam Jah, and Moazzam Jah.
Urduنواب میر عثمان علی خان
HouseAsaf Jahi dynasty
FatherSir Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI
MotherAmat-uz-Zahrunnisa Begum[contradictory]

Mir Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII GCSI GBE (6 April 1886 – 24 February 1967), was the last Nizam[9] (ruler) of the Princely State of Hyderabad, the largest princely state in British India. He ascended the throne on 29 August 1911, at the age of 25[10] and ruled the Kingdom of Hyderabad between 1911 and 1948, until India annexed it.[11] He was styled as His Exalted Highness-(H.E.H.) the Nizam of Hyderabad,[12] and was one of the wealthiest individuals of all time. In 1937, Time featured him on its cover as the world's richest person.[undue weight? ]

He was reputedly a benevolent ruler who patronised education, science, and development. During his 37-year rule, electricity was introduced, and railways, roads and airports were developed. He was known as the "Architect of modern Hyderabad" and is credited with establishing many public institutions in the city of Hyderabad, including among others: Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital, State Bank of Hyderabad, Begumpet Airport, and the Hyderabad High Court. Two reservoirs, Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar, were built during his reign, to prevent another great flood in the city.[13] He was also a philanthropist, donating to various educational and religious institutions across India and towards compiling the holy Mahabharata. Apart from his wealth, he was known for his eccentricities; he used to knit his own socks and borrow cigarettes from guests.[14]

The Nizam originally wanted to join India, but after its independence in 1947, he did not wish to accede his state to the newly formed nation. By then, his power had weakened because of the Telangana movement and the rise of a radical militia known as the Razakars whom he could not put down. In 1948, the Indian Army invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, and the Nizam had to surrender. Post-independence, he became the Rajpramukh of Hyderabad State between 1950 and 1956, after which the state was partitioned and became part of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra.[15][16]

Even after losing the throne, he continued his efforts to serve the people. In 1951, he not only started the construction of Nizam Orthopedic hospital (now Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS)) and gave it to the government on a 99-year lease for a monthly rent of just Re.1,[14] he also donated 14,000 acres (5,700 ha) of land from his personal estate to Vinobha Bhave's Bhoodan movement for re-distribution among landless farmers.[10]

Early life

Mir Osman Ali Khan was born 6 April 1886, the second son of Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI and Amat-uz-Zahra Begum[contradictory] at Purani Haveli (also known as Masarrat Mahal palace). He was educated privately and reportedly became fluent in Urdu, Persian, Arabic and English.[17][18] Under Nawab Muhammad Ali Beg he received court ethics and military training.[19]

On the recommendation of the Viceroy of India, Lord Elgin in 1898, in early 1899 Sir Brian Egerton (of the Egerton family and former tutor to Maharajah of Bikaner Ganga Singh) was appointed as Mir Osman Ali Khan's English tutor for two years. During this period he lived away from the principal palace. He lived on his own to avoid the unwholesome atmosphere of palace quarters under the guidance of Sir Egerton and other British officials and mentors so he could flourish as a gentleman of the highest class. Sir Egerton recorded that as a child, Mir Osman Ali Khan was magnanimous and "anxious to learn". Because of the indomitable attitude of zenana (the women) who were determined to send Mir Osman Ali Khan out of Hyderabad for further studies, he pursued them at Mayo College after consultation with the principal nobles of the Paigah family.[19][20]

Reign

The Nizam when he ascended the throne at 25 years of age

Mir Mahboob Ali Khan the VI Nizam died on 29 August 1911 and on the same day Mir Osman Ali Khan was proclaimed Nizam VII under the supervision of Nawab Shahab Jung, a minister of Police and Public works. On 18 September 1911, the crowning ceremony was official celebrated at Chowmahalla Palace. His coronation Durbar (court) included the prime minister of Hyderabad, Kishen Pershad, Colonel Alexander Pinhey (1911–1916) British resident of Hyderabad, the Paigah, and the distinguished nobles of the state and the head of principalities under Nizam domain.[18][19][21][22]

The famous mines of Golconda were the major source of wealth for the Nizams,[23] with the Kingdom of Hyderabad being the only supplier of diamonds for the global market in the 18th century.[23]

Mir Osman Ali Khan acceded as the Nizam of Hyderabad upon the death of his father in 1911. The state of Hyderabad was the largest of the princely states in pre-independence India. With an area of 86,000 square miles (223,000 km2), it was roughly the size of the present-day United Kingdom. The Nizam was the highest-ranking prince in India, was one of only five princes entitled to a 21-gun salute, held the unique title of "Nizam", and titled "His Exalted Highness" and "Faithful Ally of the British Crown".[24][25]

Early years (1911 to 1918)

In 1908, three years before the Nizam's coronation, the city of Hyderabad was struck by a major flood that resulted in the death of thousands. The Nizam, on the advice of Sir M. Visvesvaraya, ordered the construction of two large reservoirs—the Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar—to prevent another flood.[26]

He was given the title of "Faithful Ally of the British Crown" after World War I because of his financial contribution to the British Empire's war effort. (For example, No. 110 Squadron RAF's original complement of Airco DH.9A aircraft were Osman Ali's gift. Each aircraft bore an inscription to that effect, and the unit became known as the "Hyderabad Squadron".)[27] He also paid for a Royal Navy vessel, the N-class destroyer, HMAS Nizam commissioned in 1940 and transferred to the Royal Australian Navy.[28]

In 1918, the Nizam issued a firman (decree) that established Osmania University, the first university to have Urdu as the language of instruction. The present campus was completed in 1934. The firman also mentioned the university's detailed mission and objectives.[29]

Post-World War (1918 to 1939)

The Nizam pays homage to King George and Queen Mary at the Delhi Durbar, December 1911.

In 1919, the Nizam ordered the formation of the Executive Council of Hyderabad, presided over by Sir Sayyid Ali Imam, including eight other members, each in charge of one or more departments. The president of the Executive Council would also be the prime minister of Hyderabad.[30]

The Begumpet Airport was established in the 1930s with the formation of Hyderabad Aero Club by the Nizam. Initially, the Nizam's Deccan Airways, the earliest airline in British India, used it as a domestic and international airport. The terminal building was constructed in 1937.[31]

Final years of his reign (1939 to 1948)

The Nizam with his subjects (Maharaja Sir Kishen Pershad and Nawab Muhammad Ali Beg to his right)
President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito meeting with the Nizam, c. 1956
The Nizam with the Al-Quaiti Royal Family
The Nizam with King Saud during his visit to Hyderabad

The Nizam arranged a matrimonial alliance with deposed caliph Abdulmejid II whereby the Nizam's first son Azam Jah would marry Princess Durrushehvar of the Ottoman Empire. It was believed that the matrimonial alliance between the Nizam and the Abdulmejid II would lead to the emergence of a Muslim ruler who could be acceptable to the world powers in place of the Ottoman Sultans. After India's Independence, the Nizam attempted to declare his sovereignty over the state of Hyderabad, either as a protectorate of the British Empire or as a sovereign monarchy. However, his power weakened because of the Telangana Rebellion and the rise of the Razakars, a radical Muslim militia who wanted Hyderabad to remain under Muslim rule. In 1948, India invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, and the rule of the Nizam ended. He became the Rajpramukh and served from 26 January 1950 to 31 October 1956.[32]

Contributions to society and philanthropy

Educational initiatives

By donating to major educational institutions throughout India, he introduced many educational reforms during his reign. Up to 11% of his budget was spent on education.[33]

The Nizam made large donations to many institutions in India and abroad with special emphasis given to educational institutions such as the Jamia Nizamia and the Darul Uloom Deoband.[34][35]

The Nizam at the inauguration of the Osmania University Arts College, c. 1937.

He founded the Osmania University in 1918 through a royal firman;[36] today[when?] it is one of the largest universities in India. Schools, colleges and a Department for Translation were set up. Primary education was made compulsory and provided free for the poor.[37]

Donations to educational institutions

He also donated Rs 1 million for the Banaras Hindu University,[38][39] Rs. 500,000 for the Aligarh Muslim University,[40] and 300,000 for the Indian Institute of Science.[41]

Construction of major public buildings

Nearly all the major public buildings and institutions in Hyderabad city, such as the Hyderabad High Court, Jubilee Hall, Nizamia Observatory, Moazzam Jahi Market, Kachiguda Railway Station, Asafiya Library (State Central Library, Hyderabad), the Town Hall now known as the Assembly Hall, Hyderabad Museum now known as the State Museum; hospitals like Osmania General Hospital, Nizamia Hospital and many other buildings were constructed under his reign.[42][43][44] He also built the Hyderabad House in Delhi, now used for diplomatic meetings by the Government of India.[45][46]

Establishment of Hyderabad State Bank

In 1941, he started his own bank, the Hyderabad State Bank. It was later renamed State Bank of Hyderabad and merged with the State Bank of India as the state's central bank in 2017. It was established on 8 August 1941 under the Hyderabad State Bank Act. The bank managed the Osmania Sikka (Hyderabadi rupee), the currency of the state of Hyderabad. It was the only state in India which had its own currency, and the only state in British India where the ruler was allowed to issue currency. In 1953, the bank absorbed, by merger, the Mercantile Bank of Hyderabad, which Raja Pannalal Pitti had founded in 1935.[47]

In 1956, the Reserve Bank of India took over the bank as its first subsidiary and renamed it State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH). The Subsidiary Banks Act was passed in 1959. On 1 October 1959, SBH and the other banks of the princely states became subsidiaries of SBI. It merged with SBI on 31 March 2017.[48]

Flood prevention

After the Great Musi Flood of 1908, which killed an estimated 50,000 people, the Nizam constructed two lakes to prevent flooding—the Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar[49][unreliable source?] and bestowed a grant of 100,000 Hyderabadi rupees towards the reconstruction of Thousand Pillar Temple.[50]

After hearing about the Golden Temple of Amritsar through Maharaja Ranjit Singh,[51][52] Mir Osman Ali Khan started providing it with yearly grants.[53][54]

Donation towards the compilation of the Holy Mahabharata

In 1932, there was a need for money for the publication of the Holy Mahabharata by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute located in Pune. A formal request was made to Mir Osman Ali Khan who granted Rs. 1000 per year for a period of 11 years.[55]

He also gave Rs 50,000 for the construction of the institute's guest house[56] which stands today as the Nizam Guest House.[57][58]

Donation in Gold to the National Defence Fund

There was a myth that the Nizam donated 5000 kg of gold in 1965.[59] This was proven false through an RTI the outcome of which was published in The Hindu.[60] The National Defence Fund under the Prime Minister's Office has no information of any such donation ever being recorded. In fact, the Nizam invested 425,000 grams (425 kg) of gold in the National Defence Gold Scheme, floated in October 1965 with a 6.5% interest rate, to tide India over during the economic crisis.

Operation Polo and abdication

(From left to right): Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, the Nizam and Major Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri after Hyderabad's accession to India

After Indian independence in 1947, the country was partitioned into India and Pakistan. The princely states were left free to make whatever arrangement they wished with either India or Pakistan. The Nizam ruled over more than 16 million people and 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of territory when the British withdrew from the sub-continent in 1947. The Nizam refused to join either India or Pakistan, preferring to form a separate independent kingdom within the British Commonwealth of Nations.[61]

This proposal for independence was rejected by the British government, but the Nizam continued to explore it. Towards this end, he kept up open negotiations with the Government of India regarding the modalities of a future relationship while opening covert negotiations with Pakistan in a similar vein. The Nizam cited the Razakars as evidence that the people of the state were opposed to any agreement with India.[citation needed]

The new Indian government ultimately decided to invade Hyderabad in 1948, in an operation code-named Operation Polo. Under the supervision of Major General Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri, one division of the Indian Army and a tank brigade invaded and captured Hyderabad.[62]

Wealth

The Nizam was so wealthy that he was portrayed on the cover of Time magazine on 22 February 1937, being described as the world's richest man.[63] At its peak, the wealth of Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII was worth 660 crore (US$93 million) (all his conceivable assets combined) in the early 1940s, while his entire treasure of jewels, would be worth between US$150 million and US$500 million variously in today's terms.[64][65][66][67] He used the Jacob Diamond, a 185-carat diamond that is part of the Nizam's jewellery, as a paperweight.[68] During his days as Nizam, he was reputed to be the richest man in the world, having a fortune estimated at US$2 billion in the early 1940s[69] ($236 billion today as per US GDP figures where any monetary number is seen as a proportion of the US GDP. The US GDP was $200 billion in the 1940s. At the exchange rate of INR 3.3 to the USD Nizam's entire fortune including all his land and other assets was INR 660 crores (USD 2 billion being USD 200 crores and one USD being 3.30 INR)[70] or two per cent of the US economy then.[71]

The Nizam's personal fortune was estimated to be roughly £110 million, including £40 million in gold and jewels (equivalent to £2,145,498,339 in 2019)[72].[73][74]

The Indian government still exhibits the jewellery as the Jewels of the Nizams of Hyderabad (now in Delhi). There are 173 jewels, which include emeralds weighing nearly 2,000 carats (0.40 kg), and pearls exceeding 40 thousand chows. The collection includes gemstones, turban ornaments, necklaces and pendants, belts and buckles, earrings, armbands, bangles and bracelets, anklets, cufflinks and buttons, watch chains, and rings, toe rings, and nose rings.[75]

Gift to Queen Elizabeth II

In 1947, the Nizam made a gift of diamond jewels, including a tiara and necklace, to Queen Elizabeth II on the occasion of her marriage. The brooches and necklace are still worn by the Queen and the necklace is known as the Nizam of Hyderabad necklace.[76]

Personal life

The Nizam with his heir apparent and grandson Mukarram Jah

The Nizam lived at King Kothi Palace—bought from a nobleman—from age 13 until his death. He never moved to Chowmahalla Palace, even after his accession to the throne.[77] Unlike his father, he was not interested in fine clothing or hunting. Rather, his hobbies included poetry and writing Urdu ghazals.[78]

He revered his mother and visited her every day she was alive; he used to visit her grave almost every day after she died.[79]

Family

At the age of 21, on 14 April 1906, he married Azam Unnisa Begum (Dulhan Pasha Begum) a daughter of the noble Nawab Jahangir Jung.[18][80] Nawab Mir Khudrath Nawaz Jung Bahadur was the first brother-in-law of Nizam VII.[citation needed]

The Nizam's first son, Azam Jah, married Durru Shehvar, daughter of Abdul Mejid II (heir to the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire). They had two children, Mukarram Jah and Muffakham Jah.[81]

His second son, Moazzam Jah, married Princess Niloufer, a princess of the Ottoman Empire.[5] In total, the Nizam had 34 children comprising of 16 sons and 18 daughters.[3][4][5][a]

Mir Najaf Ali Khan is another grandson of the last Nizam.[82] He is a well-known figure as he represents several trusts of the last Nizam, including the H.E.H. the Nizam's Charitable Trust and the Nizam Family Welfare Association.[83][84]

Final years and death

People at Nizams funeral procession

The Nizam continued to stay at the King Kothi Palace until his death. He used to issue firmans on inconsequential matters in his newspaper, the Nizam Gazette.[77]

He died on Friday, 24 February 1967. In his will, he asked to buried in Masjid-e Judi, a mosque where his mother was buried, that faced King Kothi Palace.[85][86] The government declared state mourning on 25 February 1967, the day when he was buried. State government offices remained closed as a mark of respect while the National Flag of India was flown at half-mast on all the government buildings throughout the state.[87] The Nizam Museum documents state :

"The streets and pavements of the city were littered with the pieces of broken glass bangles as an incalculable number of women broke their bangles in mourning, which Telangana women usually do as per Indian customs on the death of a close relative."[88]

"The Nizam's funeral procession was the biggest non-religious, non-political meeting of people in the history of India till that date."

Millions of people of all religions from different parts of the state entered Hyderabad in trains, buses and bullocks for a last glimpse of their king in a coffin in the King Kothi Palace Camp in Hyderabad.[89] The crowd was so uncontrollable that barricades were installed alongside the road to enable people to move in a queue.[90] D. Bhaskara Rao, chief curator, of the Nizam's Museum stated that an estimated one million (1 million) people were part of the procession.[91][failed verification]

Title and salutation

Salutation style

The Nizam was the honorary Colonel of the 20 Deccan Horse. In 1918, King George V elevated Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur from "His Highness" to "His Exalted Highness". In a letter dated 24 January 1918, the title "Faithful Ally of the British Government' was conferred on him.[92]

Full Titular Name

The titles during his life were:

1886–1911: Nawab Bahadur Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi.[93]
1911–1912: His Highness Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Sir Osman ‘Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Nizam of Hyderabad, GCSI[93]
1912–1917: Colonel His Highness Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Sir Osman ‘Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Nizam of Hyderabad, GCSI[93]
1917–1918: Colonel His Highness Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Sir Osman ‘Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Nizam of Hyderabad, GCSI, GBE [93]
1918–1936: Lieutenant-General His Exalted Highness Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Sir Osman ‘Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Faithful Ally of the British Government, Nizam of Hyderabad, GCSI, GBE
1936–1941: Lieutenant-General His Exalted Highness Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Sir Osman ‘Ali Khan Siddqi Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Faithful Ally of the British Government, Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar, GCSI, GBE[93]
1941–1967: General His Exalted Highness Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Sir Osman ‘Ali Khan Siddqi Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Faithful Ally of the British Government, Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar, GCSI, GBE.[92][93]

Honours and legacy

Eponyms

See also


References

  1. ^ Ali, Mir Quadir (17 September 2019). "Hyderabad's tryst with history". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 18 November 2020. The question now is: What exactly happened on September 17, 1948? [...] The Nizam’s radio broadcast meant the lifting of the house arrest of Government of India’s Agent General K.M. Munshi, allowing him to work on a new government, with the Nizam as Head of State.
  2. ^ Benjamin B. Cohen, Kingship and Colonialism in India's Deccan, 1850–1948 (Macmillan, 2007) p81[need quotation to verify]
  3. ^ a b Mohla, Anika (21 October 2012). "From richest to rags in seven generations". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b Nadeau, Barbie Latza (30 January 2017). "Whose $40 Million Diamond Is It? An Italian Family Feud". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 15 June 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Mir Ayoob Ali Khan (19 February 2018). "Last surviving son of Nizam, Fazal Jah, dies". Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Last Surviving son of seventh Nizam passes away in Hyderabad". Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  7. ^ "Menace of Black Money: Bring back Nizam's wealth first". Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  8. ^ "Nizam's heirs seek Pakistani intervention to unfreeze bank account". India Today. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  9. ^ "Family of Indian royals wins £35m court battle against Pakistan". BBC News. 2 October 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  10. ^ a b ":: The Seventh Nizam - The Nizam's Museum Hyderabad, Telangana, India". thenizamsmuseum.com. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  11. ^ "This day, that year: How Hyderabad became a part of the union of India". 16 September 2018. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  12. ^ "HYDERABAD: Silver Jubilee Durbar". Time. 22 February 1937. Archived from the original on 24 May 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference lakes built was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ a b "The Last Nizam who put Hyderabad on global map". Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  15. ^ "A Memorable Republic Day". pib.nic.in. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  16. ^ Karnataka State Gazetteer: Gulbarga. Director of Printing, Stationery and Publications at the Government Press. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  17. ^ "Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society". Pakistan Historical Society. the University of Michigan. 46: 3–4(104). 1998. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  18. ^ a b c Jaganath, Santosh (2013). The History of Nizam's Railways System. Laxmi Book Publication. p. 44. ISBN 9781312496477. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  19. ^ a b c "Chapter II" (PDF). Shodh Ganga-Indian Electronic Thesises and Dissertations. p. 56. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  20. ^ Keen, Caroline (2003). The power behind the throne: Relations between the British and the Indian states 1870-1909 (PDF) (PhD thesis). SOAS University of London. p. 84–86. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 September 2020.
  21. ^ T, Uma (April 2003). "1". Accession of Hyderabad state to the Indian union: a study of the political and pressure groups (1945-1948) (PhD thesis). Department of History, School of Social Sciences, University of Hyderabad. p. 20. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2020 – via Shodh Ganga-Indian Electronic Thesises and Dissertations.
  22. ^ Narendra Luther (1999). "Rival of the Seventh Nizam". Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  23. ^ a b "Celebrating the Nizam's fabled golconda diamonds". Economic Times Blog. 23 February 2019. Archived from the original on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  24. ^ "'His Exalted Highness' to be staged today". The Hindu. 14 March 2007. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  25. ^ richest-man-mir-osman-ali-khan-forbes-list "Business News Today: Read Latest Business news, India Business News Live, Share Market & Economy News" Check |url= value (help). The Economic Times.
  26. ^ Law 1914, p. 85-92.
  27. ^ "RAF – Bomber Command No.110 Squadron". raf.mod.uk. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  28. ^ "HMAS Nizam". Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  29. ^ "Osmania University". osmania.ac.in. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  30. ^ "peshi - Synonyms of peshi". wordsimilarity.com. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  31. ^ "Begumpet Airport History". Archived from the original on 21 December 2005.
  32. ^ "Fact Check: The Nizam of Hyderabad never fled Hyderabad". India Today. 29 January 2019. Archived from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  33. ^ "Nizam Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan was a perfect secular ruler". The Siasat Daily - Archive. 13 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  34. ^ "Mir Osman Ali Khan: Richest Indian to ever exist in documented history". The Siasat Daily - Archive. 30 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  35. ^ "NISAB AHLE KHIDMAT-E-SHARIA(Syllabus for Observers of Islamic Law)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  36. ^ "Osmania University". osmania.ac.in. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  37. ^ "Welcome to Osmania University". Osmania.ac.in. 26 April 1917. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  38. ^ "Nizam gave funding for temples, and Hindu educational institutions". missiontelangana. 28 May 2013. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  39. ^ "Nizam gave funding for temples, Hindu educational institutions". siasat. 10 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  40. ^ "Nothing is more disgraceful for a nation than to throw into the oblivion its historical heritage and the works of its ancestors". 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  41. ^ "Government of india donated rs 15 lakh and nizam of". Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  42. ^ Lasania, Yunus Y. (26 April 2017). "100 years of Osmania University, the hub of Telangana agitation". Mint. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  43. ^ "Once the pride of the Nizam, Hyderabad's iconic Osmania hospital now lies in shambles". The News Minute. 24 January 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  44. ^ "Kacheguda station scripts 100 years of history". The Hans India. 3 June 2016. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  45. ^ Nayar, K.P. (18 July 2011). "Ties too big for Delhi table – Space dilemma mirrors growth in Indo-US relationship". The Telegraph. Kolkota. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  46. ^ Sharma, Manoj (8 June 2011). "Of princes, palaces and plush points". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  47. ^ Pagdi, Raghavendra Rao (1987) Short History of Banking in Hyderabad District, 1879–1950. In M. Radhakrishna Sarma, K.D. Abhyankar, and V.G. Bilolikar, eds. History of Hyderabad District, 1879-1950AD (Yugabda 4981–5052). (Hyderabad : Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti), Vol. 2, pp.85–87.
  48. ^ Sridhar, G. Naga (8 April 2014). "Ethnic flavour: SBH to be chief banker to new Telangana state". BusinessLine. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  49. ^ "Osman Sagar Lake, History of Osman Sagar Lake, Adventure at Osman Sagar Lake : Eco India". ecoindia.com. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  50. ^ "Attempt to portray Nizam as 'intolerant oppressor' decried". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  51. ^ "Maharaja Ranjit Singh's contributions to Harimandir Sahib". Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  52. ^ "A Brief History of The Nizams of Hyderabad". Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  53. ^ Jaganath, Dr Santosh. The History of Nizam's Railways System. ISBN 9781312496477. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  54. ^ Morgan, Diane (2007). From Satan's Crown to the Holy Grail: Emeralds in Myth, Magic, and History. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275991234. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  55. ^ "Family members rue that Hyderabad has forgotten the last Nizam's contribution to the city". 18 August 2016. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  56. ^ "Nizam's Guest House, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune". Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  57. ^ "Reminiscing the seventh Nizam's enormous contribution to education". telanganatoday. 27 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  58. ^ "Over Year On, Bori's Historic Nizam Guest House Still Awaits Reopening". 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  59. ^ "When Osman Ali Khan donated 5 tonnes of gold to Govt. of India". Archived from the original on 4 September 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  60. ^ Serish Nanisetti (11 November 2018). "The truth about the Nizam and his gold". Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  61. ^ "Lessons to learn from Hyderabad's past". The Times of India. 15 December 2013. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  62. ^ "Exclusive sunder lal report on indian armies annexation of Hyderabad and the following mass killings of muslims". Archived from the original on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  63. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: The Nizam of Hyderabad – Feb. 22, 1937". Time. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  64. ^ "INDIA: The Nizam's Daughter". Time. 19 January 1959.
  65. ^ "Exhibition of jewels of Hyderabad Nizams includes fifth-largest diamond in world".
  66. ^ "rediff.com: Hyderabad museum to exhibit Nizam's jewels".
  67. ^ "Priceless Nizam jewels to be exhibited". The Times of India.
  68. ^ Y. Lasania, Yunus. "The last Nizam of Hyderabad was not a miser". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  69. ^ "INDIA: The Nizam's Daughter". Time. 19 January 1959. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
  70. ^ Foreign Commerce Weekly. 24. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1946. p. 25.
  71. ^ "Here are five super-rich people from the pages of history!". The Economic Times. 1 May 2015. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  72. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  73. ^ "Gifts of gold to help the Indian treasury". The Times. 14 December 1965.[need quotation to verify]
  74. ^ Krishnan, Usha Ramamrutham Bala; Ramamrutham, Bharath (2001). Jewels of the Nizams. Department of Culture, Government of India. ISBN 978-81-85832-15-9. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  75. ^ Methil Renuka (3 September 2001). "Exhibition of jewels of Hyderabad Nizams includes fifth-largest diamond in world". India Today. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  76. ^ "The Nizam of Hyderabad Rose Brooches and Necklace". From Her Majesty's Jewel Vault. 11 February 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  77. ^ a b Khalidi, Omar (2009). A Guide to Architecture in Hyderabad, Deccan, India (PDF). p. 163. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  78. ^ "A visual ode to Mir Osman Ali Khan, the architect of modern". The Times of India. 8 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  79. ^ ":: The Seventh Nizam - the Nizam's Museum Hyderabad, Telangana, India". Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  80. ^ Khan, Mir Ayoob Ali (23 September 2013). "Nizam paid 128 kg in gold coins as meher to first wife". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  81. ^ "Princess Dürrühsehvar of Berar". The Daily Telegraph. 11 February 2006. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  82. ^ "Nizam's grandson basks in grandpa's glory". The Hans India. 27 April 2017. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  83. ^ "Last Hyderabad Nizam's Heirs Demand 277 Acres Royal Property in Aurangabad". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  84. ^ Syed Akbar (5 July 2017). "Nizam's heir goes by Blue Book, wants market rate for acquired land". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  85. ^ "Floarl Tribute to Nizam VII – The Siasat Daily". siasat.com. 25 February 2018. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  86. ^ "Heritage enthusiasts pay rich tributes to seventh Nizam". The Hindu. 7 April 2018. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  87. ^ "In pictures: 50 years ago a sea of people turned up for Death of Hyderabads Last Nizam". thenewsminute.com. 24 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  88. ^ "The Times Group". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  89. ^ "On his 50th death anniversary, the last Nizam of Hyderabad". Hindustan Times. 24 February 2017. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  90. ^ "Nizam's opulence has no takers". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  91. ^ Syed Akbar (25 February 2017). "Mir Osman Ali Khan: Modern Hyderabad architect and statehood icon, Nizam VII fades into history". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 September 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  92. ^ a b "Hyderabad (Princely State)". The Indian Princely States Website. Archived from the original on 7 January 2003. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  93. ^ a b c d e f "Page 3 | The Gazette". Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  94. ^ "No. 28559". The London Gazette. 12 December 1911. p. 9357.
  95. ^ a b c d e f Cannadine, David (2002). Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515794-9. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2020.

Further reading

  • The Splendour of Hyderabad: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture (1591–1948 A.D.) By M.A. Nayeem ISBN 81-85492-20-4
  • The Nocturnal Court: The Life of a Prince of Hyderabad By Sidq Jaisi
  • Developments in Administration Under H.E.H. the Nizam VII By Shamim Aleem, M. A. Aleem Developments in Administration Under H.E.H. the Nizam VII
  • Jewels of the Nizams (Hardcover) by Usha R. Krishnan (Author) ISBN 81-85832-15-3
  • Fabulous Mogul: Nizam VII of Hyderabad By Dosoo Framjee Karaka Published 1955 D. Verschoyle, Original from the University of Michigan Fabulous Mogul: Nizam VII of Hyderabad
  • The Seventh Nizam: The Fallen Empire By Zubaida Yazdani, Mary Chrystal ISBN 0-9510819-0-X
  • The Last Nizam: The Life and Times of Mir Osman Ali Khan By V.K. Bawa, Basant K. Bawa ISBN 0-670-83997-3
  • The Seventh Nizam of Hyderabad: An Archival Appraisal By Sayyid Dā'ūd Ashraf The Seventh Nizam of Hyderabad: An Archival Appraisal
  • Raghavendra Rao, D (27 July 1926). Misrule of the Nizam: being extracts from and translations of articles regarding the administration of Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Deccan. "Swarajya" Press. OCLC 5067242.
  • Photographs of Lord Willingdon's visit to Hyderabad in the early 1930s. 27 July 1931. OCLC 33453066.
  • Law, John (1914). Modern Hyderabad (Deccan). Thacker, Spink and Co.

External links

Mir Osman Ali Khan
Born: 8 April 1886 Died: 24 February 1967
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI
Nizam of Hyderabad
1911–1948
Annexed by Dominion of India
Titles in pretence
New title — TITULAR —
Nizam of Hyderabad
1948–1967
Succeeded by
Barkat Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VIII
Government offices
Preceded by
Mir Yousuf Ali Khan, Salar Jung III
Prime Minister of Hyderabad
1914–1919
Succeeded by


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).